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However, there is a limited range in Sm-Nd isotopes in many igneous rocks, although metamorphic rocks that contain the mineral garnet are useful as this mineral has a large range in Sm-Nd isotopes.

This technique also helps in determining the composition and evolution of the Earth's mantle and bodies in the universe.

The amount of 14C present and the known rate of decay of 14C and the equilibrium value gives the length of time elapsed since the death of the organism.

This method faces problems because the cosmic ray flux has changed over time, but a calibration factor is applied to take this into account.

Some techniques place the sample in a nuclear reactor first to excite the isotopes present, then measure these isotopes using a mass spectrometer (such as in the argon-argon scheme).

Others place mineral grains under a special microscope, firing a laser beam at the grains which ionises the mineral and releases the isotopes.

The isotopes are then measured within the same machine by an attached mass spectrometer (an example of this is SIMS analysis).

This is a common dating method mainly used by archaeologists, as it can only date geologically recent organic materials, usually charcoal, but also bone and antlers.

The unstable or more commonly known radioactive isotopes break down by radioactive decay into other isotopes.Radioactive decay is a natural process and comes from the atomic nucleus becoming unstable and releasing bits and pieces.These are released as radioactive particles (there are many types).This technique is good for iron meteorites and the mineral molybdenite.This system is highly favoured for accurate dating of igneous and metamorphic rocks, through many different techniques.

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